history of nanking
 Big civilian-run enterprise include Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong, Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical, Nanjing Iron and Steel Company and Simcere Pharmaceutical.  Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China under the nationalist Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War. The craft industries, by contrast, had a faster growth. On its western boundary is Anhui, where Nanjing borders five prefecture-level cities: Chuzhou to the northwest, Wuhu, Chaohu and Ma'anshan to the west and Xuancheng to the southwest.. STUDIES ON THE POPULATION OF CHINA, 1368–1953. Different means of transport constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) The massacre occurred over a six-week period starting on December … The city normally held about 250,000 people, but by the mid-1930s its population had swollen to more than 1 million. As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. The northern part of the lower Yangtze drainage basin is the Huai River basin and the southern part is the Zhe River basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion's catastrophe. The well-established "Nanjing 1912" district hosts a wide variety of recreational facilities ranging from traditional restaurants and western pubs to dance clubs, in both its downtown location and beside Baijia Lake in Jiangning District.  The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (181.15 mi/100 sq mi). And the people are even addressed as 'Nanjing big radish', which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative.  The two artery roads in Nanjing are Zhongshan Road and Hanzhong. In recent years, many night-life options have opened up in Catherine Park as well as in shopping malls such as IST in Xinjiekou and Kingmo near Baijai Lake metro station. The city is renowned for its wide variety of architectures which mainly contain buildings from multiple dynasties, the Republic of China, and the present. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. p. 237, Pelissier, Roger. Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia.  Although conquered by the Western Jin dynasty in 280, Nanjing and its neighboring areas had been well cultivated, developing into one of the commercial, cultural and political centers of China during the Eastern Wu. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections.  The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate this event. Some of the other biggest national universities in Nanjing are: The major theaters include the People's Convention Hall and the Nanjing Arts and Culture Center. Home » History of Nanking Massacre.  This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries. The official told his children in Nanjing to prepare to defect to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do. On 10 February 2010, the 122nd IOC session at Vancouver announced Nanjing as the host city for the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games. It was well populated and had a large craft industry.. Jiangsu Volleyball men and women teams are also traditionally considered as at top level in China volleyball league. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing.  In English, the spelling Nanking has been traditional until Pinyin, developed in the 1950s and internationally adopted in the 1980s, standardized the spelling as "Nanjing". , It was chosen as the capital and called Jinling (金陵) during the Southern Tang (937–976), which succeeded the state of Yang Wu. When it was the capital of China, for instance under the ROC, Jing (京; 'Capital') was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing.  Koxinga's Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing army when attacking Nanjing. Some of the leading art groups of China are based in Nanjing; they include the Qianxian Dance Company, Nanjing Dance Company, Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute and Nanjing Xiaohonghua Art Company among others. Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. Edited and Translated by Martin Kieffer.  On 3 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter average over 943 micrograms per cubic meter, falling to over 338 micrograms per cubic meter on 4 December 2013. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education program focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. As from October 2014, Nanjing had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze River, linking districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank..  In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture.  It was renamed Jiangning (江寧) in the Northern Song and renamed Jiankang in the Southern Song. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. , A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it. There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. , At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. Coordinates (Jiangsu People's Government): unknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. Here is a short list: Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings, National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery, Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain, Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs, Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders, Zifeng Tower ranks among the tallest buildings in the world, opened for commercial operations in 2010..  His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty. Nanjing University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000. It is well-known that people in Nanjing like eating radish. American History; Middle Ages; Hollywood; Archaeology; 24 Images of the Brutal Nanking Massacre By Jacob Miller. In the near future, Such Yangtze Crossings will be added as follow :Jianning West Rd. Nanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Zhang, Chunhou.  Even children, the elderly, and nuns are reported to have suffered at the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army. 5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. The Port of Nanjing is the largest inland port in China, with annual cargo tonnage reached 191,970,000 t in 2012. In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui, contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. Jinling cuisine is famous for its meticulous process, emphasizing no added preservatives and its seasonality. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. Amazingly, the story of this atrocityone of the worst in world historycontinues to be denied by the Japanese government. When was Nanjing founded? New York: Putnam, 1967. p. 109, Fu Jing-hui, An Introduction of Chinese and Foreign History of War, 2003, p.109–111, Document sent by former Japanese foreign minister. [e] The region is also well known as Dongnan (东南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (江南, and River South, South of Yangtze). ¹ — Taiwan is administered as a streamlined province by the, Capital of the republic and Nanking Massacre. Tunnel, Xianxin Rd. Im Dezember 1937 eroberten japanische Kräfte die damalige Hauptstadt der Republik China Nanking, nachdem sich die chinesischen Verteidiger chaotisch aus der Stadt zurückgezogen hatten. Den Protokollen der Tokioter Prozesse zufolge wurden über 200.000, anderen Schätzungen zufolge über 300.000 Zivilisten und Kriegsgefangene ermordet sowie rund 20.000 Mädchen und Frauen vergewaltigt. In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD, as well as in and around major residential areas throughout the city. Nanjing is ranked the 88th QS Best Student City in 2019. The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, the city has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. Shufen Liu, "Jiankang and the Commercial Empire of the Southern Dynasties", in Pearce, Spiro, Ebrey eds. First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. 2004 - Longtan Containers Port Area opens. However another version held by most historians, is …  The station was opened for public service in 2011.. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R&D institutes in the city.  It is among the longest surviving city walls in China. During this boom, Nanjing reputedly became one of the most modern cities in China. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas. They sometimes went door-to-door, dragging out women and even small children and violently gang-raping them. As a major Chinese city, Nanjing is home to many professional sports teams. Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. A lot of government buildings, residential houses, and modern public infrastructures were built.  Official statistics in 2011 estimated the city's population to be 8.11 million. Through readings of historical account by actors and the testimony of survivors, the events of the Nanjing Massacre are recounted. Die Nanking-Massaker-Gedächtnishalle in China enthält unter seinen vielen Ausstellungsstücken auch eines über den „Wettstreit“. Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass rape and murder committed by the Japanese troops against the residents of Nanking, then the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The British Royal Navy operated the China Station under Rear Admiral Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt and the United States Navy the Yangtze Patrol; both lasted for around 80 y…  According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495 BC.  Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00 pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing to other Jiangsu cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station. Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million. Nanking in 1927 was a treaty port located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River, a large waterway that separates northern and southern China.  The commoners and officials in Beijing and Nanjing were waiting to support whichever side won. In 2013, Nanjing airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight. Its duck and goose dishes are well known among Chinese for centuries. Koxinga's forces were unable to maintain a complete encirclement, which enabled the city to obtain supplies and even reinforcements—though cavalry attacks by the city's forces were successful even before reinforcements arrived. , As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections.  On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 mm (43 in). The Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organizing Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita (current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), an 11 percent increase from 2012.  On November 12, 1999, the station was burnt in a serious fire. "Jiangning" redirects here. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. „Metropole der zehn Dynastien“ (十朝都會 / 十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì). Mao Zedong as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. 13 Middle School, the city's oldest/continuous school grounds in the city.. Planetary History  Early History . On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing.  The area was successively part of Kuaiji, Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty (106 BC). Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum.  Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China having 400,000 items in its permanent collection. There are a number of industrial zones in Nanjing. Many universities in Nanjing have satellite campuses or have moved their main campus to Xianlin University City in the eastern suburb. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent.  The smog dissipated 12 December. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. According to the QS Higher Education top-ranking university, Nanjing University is ranked the seventh university in China, and 122nd overall in the world as of 2019.  It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xi'an (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei–Nanjing Railway. The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁; 'Peace') is the short name of Nanjing. The six dynasties were: Eastern Wu (222–280), Eastern Jin dynasty (317–420) and four southern dynasties (420–589). The city first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty. These moves sparked strong protests from other Asian …  The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing until November 25, and then Chengdu before retreating to the island of Taiwan on December 10 where Taipei was proclaimed the temporary capital of the Republic of China.  Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta.  Later in 473 BC, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng (越城) on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanjing was selected as its new capital. In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing (alternately written as the Nanking Massacre or the Rape of Nanking) was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Imperial Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War . [f], Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. Nanjing hosted the 10th National Games of PRC in 2005 and hosted the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games in 2014.. The restaurant specializing in Jinling cuisine is Ma Xiang Xing (马祥兴菜馆). In 1927, the Nationalist government proposed a comprehensive planning proposal, the Capital Plan (首都計劃), to reconstruct the war-torn city of Nanjing into a modern capital. Instead, Nanjing, as a tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year. Nanjing first became a state capital in AD 229, when the state of Eastern Wu founded by Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms period relocated its capital to Jianye (建業), the city extended on the basis of Jinling Yi in AD 211. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average (4.3 percent). Some notable high schools in Nanjing are: Jinling High School, Nanjing Foreign Language School, High School Affiliated to Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing No.1 High School, Nanjing Zhonghua High School, Caulfield Grammar School (Nanjing Campus). "梁都之时，城中二十八万户，西至石头，东至倪塘，南至石子冈，北过蒋山，东西南北各四十里。", In the 3rd year of Jianyan (1129), Jiankang became Temporary Capital (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDennerline2002 (, Ho Ping-ti. The letter said it reflected the grim situation being felt in Qing Beijing. Duch Amazon home to many professional sports teams an average Nanjing household consisted of 5.1! Water resources, both from the three Kingdoms period to Southern China worked in the was! Visited by the, capital of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing and Nanjin or between Nanking Nankin. By the Japanese armies which had invaded China lower than the national average ( 4.3 ). 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