# a level physics thermodynamics questions

# a level physics thermodynamics questions

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if an object X is in thermal equilibrium with object Y, and object Y also in thermal equilibrium with object Z, then object X must also be in thermal equilibrium with object Z. refers to the first law of thermodynamics. A 4-ton air conditioner removes \(\displaystyle 5.06×10^7J\) (48,000 British thermal units) from a cold environment in 1.00 h. (a) What energy input in joules is necessary to do this if the air conditioner has an energy efficiency rating (\(\displaystyle EER\)) of 12.0? 86. Do this by considering the number of ways that each could be formed (the number of microstates in each macrostate). However, when the residents are not at home, it is still warm in these houses. Email info@curriculum-press.co.uk Phone 01952 271 318. (d) Does either outcome violate the second law of thermodynamics? What temperature of hot steam must you use? 30. (a) By calculating \(\displaystyle PΔV\), find the work done by the steam when the piston moves 0.800 m. Note that this is the net work output, since gauge pressure is used. 98. A great deal of effort, time, and money has been spent in the quest for the so-called perpetual-motion machine, which is defined as a hypothetical machine that operates or produces useful work indefinitely and/or a hypothetical machine that produces more work or energy than it consumes. But other considerations have to be taken into account. Show that the coefficients of performance of refrigerators and heat pumps are related by \(\displaystyle COP_{ref}=COP_{hp}−1\). 100. 8. Consider a car trip into the mountains. 47. (a) \(\displaystyle Eff_1=1−\frac{T_{c,1}}{T_{h,1}}=1−\frac{543K}{723K}=0.249\) or \(\displaystyle 24.9%\) Consider a system with a certain energy content, from which we wish to extract as much work as possible. Is the same true for isobaric and isochoric processes? (Essentially: conservation of energy). In which of the paths between initial state i and final state f in the below figure is … Explain your answer. 77. In the German world it is often seen as an a diﬀerent ﬁeld from statistical mechanics. Questions on heat and thermodynamics for Principles of Engineering. Can you cool a kitchen by leaving the refrigerator door open? (Hint: Consider whether the gas does work and whether heat transfer occurs rapidly into the gas through conduction.). 12. An ideal heat pump is being considered for use in heating an environment with a temperature of \(\displaystyle 22.0ºC\). Explain your answer. What is the work done and what is doing it? When \(\displaystyle 1.60×10^5J\) of heat transfer occurs into a meat pie initially at \(\displaystyle 20.0º C\), its entropy increases by 480 J/K. State The Third Law Of Thermodynamics. Steam to drive an old-fashioned steam locomotive is supplied at a constant gauge pressure of \(\displaystyle 1.75×10^6N/m^2\) (about 250 psi) to a piston with a 0.200-m radius. (b) What is unreasonable about the temperature? Can they eliminate heat transfer into the environment entirely? 39. … Here are a few important concepts that need to be covered while preparing for this chapter: The first law of thermodynamics. This states: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. Does the entropy of a star increase or decrease as it radiates? The second law of thermodynamics. 89. These are the answers to the thermodynamics practice questions for A-Level Physics. If you run down some stairs and stop, what happens to your kinetic energy and your initial gravitational potential energy? (b) What is the cost of doing this if the work costs 10.0 cents per \(\displaystyle 3.60×10^6J \) (one kilowatt-hour)? I have some questions on Thermodynamics on A-level physics. These are practice examination questions on kinetic theory of gases for A-Level Physics. 65. (a) –56.3ºC 23. (a) What was the heat transfer into this engine? Guides and question banks covering Atomic structure, Electromagnetic waves, Kinetic Theory and many more Physics a-level topics. to estimate required balances of heat, work and energy flow. How do they differ in the types of energy considered? (e) 3.33 times more likely (20 to 6). 11. These are the answers to the quantum theory practice questions for A-Level Physics. Practical steam engines utilize \(\displaystyle 450ºC\) steam, which is later exhausted at \(\displaystyle 270ºC\). (b) What is the maximum amount of work in joules he can do without breaking down fat, assuming a maximum efficiency of 20.0%? (Part of \(\displaystyle Q_c\) could be utilized to operate heat engines or for simply heating the surroundings, but it rarely is. 61. Calculate the net work output of a heat engine following path ABCDA in the figure below. (a) \(\displaystyle 3.80 × 10^9J\) (e) Discuss how everyday processes make increasingly more energy unavailable to do work, as implied by this problem. First law of thermodynamics. These are practice examination questions on thermodynamics for A-Level Physics. (a) \(\displaystyle −1.0×10^4J\), or \(\displaystyle −2.39 kcal\) (a) A cyclical heat engine, operating between temperatures of \(\displaystyle 450º C\) and \(\displaystyle 150º C\) produces 4.00 MJ of work on a heat transfer of 5.00 MJ into the engine. What is the total change in entropy due to this heat transfer alone, assuming an average indoor temperature of \(\displaystyle 21.0º C\) and an average outdoor temperature of \(\displaystyle 5.00º C\)? These are the answers to the gravity practice questions for A-Level Physics. Why—other than the fact that the second law of thermodynamics says reversible engines are the most efficient—should heat engines employing reversible processes be more efficient than those employing irreversible processes? All other factors, such as the car’s temperature, are constant. NEET Physics - Mini Question Bank Thermodynamics questions & solutions with PDF and difficulty level 40. 25. Explain your answer. How does the short time span help the process to be adiabatic? What is the best coefficient of performance possible for a hypothetical refrigerator that could make liquid nitrogen at \(\displaystyle −200ºC\) and has heat transfer to the environment at \(\displaystyle 35.0ºC\)? No part of our online resources may be reproduced or reused for any commercial purpose, or transmitted, in any other form or by any other means, without the prior permission of Curriculum Press Ltd. (a) What is the decrease in her internal energy, assuming no change in temperature or consumption of food? Edexcel A Level Physics revision resources. (b) What would the maximum efficiency of this steam engine be if its cold reservoir temperature were \(\displaystyle 150ºC\)? Thermodynamics--a short test 10 Questions | 408 Attempts AIEEE Physics: Heat and thermodynamics, IIT JEE Physics, AIPMT Physics: Thermodynamics, XI CBSE, I.SC, Thermodynamics Contributed By: Kajal Sengupta (d) Calculate the amount of work made unavailable by this mixing using a low temperature of \(\displaystyle 10.0º C\), and compare it with the work done by the Carnot engine. 81. The temperature of a rapidly expanding gas decreases. (Consult Table. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy. (a) \(\displaystyle 2.47×10^{14}J\) (c) How much work is made unavailable, taking the lowest temperature to be \(\displaystyle 20.0º C\)? (a) \(\displaystyle 1.44×10^7J\) Solution State why or why not. (a) \(\displaystyle 1.32 × 10^9J\) Explain your answer. 62. Would the previous question make any sense for an isochoric process? (b) \(\displaystyle –8.30 × 10^{12}J\), where the negative sign indicates a reduction in heat transfer to the environment. (b) What is the change in entropy due to this heat transfer? It should happen twice in every \(\displaystyle 1.27×10^{30}s\) or once in every \(\displaystyle 6.35×10^{29}s\) (a) What is the change in entropy if you start with 10 coins in the 5 heads and 5 tails macrostate, toss them, and get 2 heads and 8 tails? (b) This amount of heat is consistent with the fact that you warm quickly when exercising. (a) Calculate the heat transfer to the power station, \(\displaystyle Q_h\), in one day. Is a temperature difference necessary to operate a heat engine? Explain what she is likely to find, in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. Created by teachers for Physics revision. (b) What if you get 75 heads and 25 tails? (d) How much energy becomes unavailable to do work because of this increase in entropy, assuming an \(\displaystyle 18.0º C\) lowest temperature? Have questions or comments? 59. (b) \(\displaystyle 1.66×10^8J\) or \(\displaystyle 3.97×10^4kcal\) Solution These are the answers to the thermodynamics practice questions for A-Level Physics. 45. (c) If the cost of this work input is \(\displaystyle 10.0 cents/kW⋅h\), how does its cost compare with the direct heat transfer achieved by burning natural gas at a cost of 85.0 cents per therm. 6. The two cyclical processes shown on this \(\displaystyle PV\) diagram start with and return the system to the conditions at point A, but they follow different paths and produce different amounts of work. (a) On a winter day, a certain house loses \(\displaystyle 5.00×10^8J\) of heat to the outside (about 500,000 Btu). Solution Solution Structured or uniform? A large electrical power station generates 1000 MW of electricity with an efficiency of 35.0%. Construct a problem in which you calculate the overall efficiency of the car for the trip as a ratio of kinetic and potential energy gained to fuel consumed. If so, does the entropy increase or decrease? She is standing at 28.5 m from the earth surface level. 1. 66. (c) \(\displaystyle 2.85×10^{10}J/K\) They are very well insulated and are kept warm by the body heat of the residents. (a) What is the increase in entropy in one day due to this heat transfer? Subscribe to A Level Physics to access 400+ resources, plus 15 new Factsheets each year. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! 5.1 Thermodynamics notes. Questions organised by topic, past papers & mark schemes. 35. Is a uniform-temperature gas more or less orderly than one with several different temperatures? (a) If you toss 10 coins, what percent of the time will you get the three most likely macrostates (6 heads and 4 tails, 5 heads and 5 tails, 4 heads and 6 tails)? Which is more structured? To raise a car weighing 1000 kilograms a distance of 100 meters would require about a million joules. (a) \(\displaystyle 1.04×10^{31}J/K\) The engine of a large ship does \(\displaystyle 2.00×10^8J\) of work with an efficiency of 5.00%. Solution (b) How much work in joules must be done for a heat transfer of 4186 kJ from the cold environment? Construct a problem in which you calculate the maximum efficiency this engine can have. 68. Explain briefly. 21. Can a process be precisely adiabatic for a macroscopic system? Is this orderly or disorderly? (a) Suppose you want to design a steam engine that has heat transfer to the environment at 270ºC and has a Carnot efficiency of 0.800. Explain why in terms of the first law of thermodynamics. (a) 122 W ), Solution The actual efficiency is 96% of the Carnot efficiency, which is much higher than the best-ever achieved of about 70%, so her scheme is likely to be fraudulent. Give an example of a spontaneous process in which a system becomes less ordered and energy becomes less available to do work. With \(\displaystyle 2.56×10^6J\) of heat transfer into this engine, a given cyclical heat engine can do only \(\displaystyle 1.50×10^5J\) of work. What is the change in internal energy of the system assuming no other changes (such as in temperature or by the addition of fuel)? (c) What increase in entropy is produced by mixing 20.0 kg of \(\displaystyle 90.0º C\) water with 20.0 kg of \(\displaystyle 10.0º C\) water? These are practice examination questions on liquids & gases for A-level Physics. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. What is the coefficient of performance of an ideal heat pump that has heat transfer from a cold temperature of \(\displaystyle −25.0ºC\) to a hot temperature of \(\displaystyle 40.0ºC\)? Among the factors to be considered are the gain in altitude and speed, the mass of the car, the distance traveled, and typical fuel economy. You should also now be able to successfully attempt Q2 on the May 2013 and May 2014 papers for Engineering Thermodynamics. (a) What is the hot reservoir temperature of a Carnot engine that has an efficiency of 42.0% and a cold reservoir temperature of \(\displaystyle 27.0ºC\)? (A therm is a common unit of energy for natural gas and equals \(\displaystyle 1.055×10^8J\).). Solution The temperature of a body is increased from -173 C to 357 C. Driving up Pike's Peak (a mere 3000-meter climb) should consume a little less than a quart of gas. What is the cold reservoir temperature if the pump is to have a coefficient of performance of 12.0? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Thermodynamics. (b) 7 This is the currently selected item. These are practice examination questions on synoptic for A-Level Physics. Created by teachers for Physics revision. What would the hot reservoir temperature be for a Carnot engine having that efficiency, if it operates with a cold reservoir temperature of \(\displaystyle 200ºC\)? Compare this efficiency to the thermodynamic efficiency quoted for gasoline engines and discuss why the thermodynamic efficiency is so much greater. How much more internal energy does this gas have than the same volume has at zero gauge pressure (which is equivalent to normal atmospheric pressure)? Solution 13. Solution One method of converting heat transfer into doing work is for heat transfer into a gas to take place, which expands, doing work on a piston, as shown in the figure below. (b) Does the time found in part (a) imply that it is easy to consume more food energy than you can reasonably expect to work off with exercise? (a) In reaching equilibrium, how much heat transfer occurs from 1.00 kg of water at \(\displaystyle 40.0º C\) when it is placed in contact with 1.00 kg of \(\displaystyle 20.0º C\) water in reaching equilibrium? 97. Part 1 Problem 1. Solution Does this assume no phase change takes place? \(\displaystyle (6.35×10^{29}s)(\frac{1 h}{3600 s})=(\frac{1 d}{24 h})(\frac{1 y}{365.25 d})=2.0×10^{22}y\), 95. Solution (a) How much work do you do in one stroke if the average gauge pressure is \(\displaystyle 2.40×10^5N/m^2\) (about 35 psi)? 54. In this question, the coffee is in equilibrium with both the milk and the sugar, allowing us to conclude that the milk and sugar must be in equilibrium with … (a) What is the best coefficient of performance for a heat pump that has a hot reservoir temperature of \(\displaystyle 50.0ºC\) and a cold reservoir temperature of \(\displaystyle −20.0ºC\)? (b) What average force do you exert on the piston, neglecting friction and gravitational force? (Take the ratio of the number of microstates to find out.). (c) Yes, since automobiles engines cannot get too hot without overheating, their efficiency is limited. 5. 99. To understand this concept we must first appreciate what thermal equilibrium is. 14. (a) How much heat transfer occurs to the environment by an electrical power station that uses \(\displaystyle 1.25×10^{14}J\) of heat transfer into the engine with an efficiency of 42.0%? (a) Construct a table showing the macrostates and all of the individual microstates for tossing 6 coins. Compare your calculated efficiency with the actual efficiency of car engines. (b) 24%. (a) How much heat transfer occurs from 20.0 kg of \(\displaystyle 90.0º C\) water placed in contact with 20.0 kg of \(\displaystyle 10.0º C\) water, producing a final temperature of \(\displaystyle 50.0º C\)? The Sun radiates energy at the rate of \(\displaystyle 3.80×10^{26}W\) from its \(\displaystyle 5500º C\) surface into dark empty space (a negligible fraction radiates onto Earth and the other planets). Describe the photo of the tea kettle at the beginning of this section in terms of heat transfer, work done, and internal energy. How much heat transfer occurs to the environment? Consider a body at a high temperature in contact with a body at a low temperature. (c) If you were betting on two heads and 8 tails, the odds of breaking even are 252 to 45, so on average you would break even. (b) \(\displaystyle W=Fd=1.76×10^5J\). (a) \(\displaystyle 18.5kJ\) (a) What is the change in entropy if you start with 100 coins in the 45 heads and 55 tails macrostate, toss them, and get 51 heads and 49 tails? In some Northern European nations, homes are being built without heating systems of any type. The heat transfer to the cold reservoir is \(\displaystyle Q_c=Q_h−W=25kJ−12kJ=13kJ\), so the efficiency is \(\displaystyle Eff=1−\frac{Q_c}{Q_h}=1−\frac{13kJ}{25kJ}=0.48\). Keep up to date with all the latest news, resources & updates from Curriculum Press, Physics Interactive Assessments - A-Level, Kinetic Theory of Gases Questions - A-Level, Kinetic Theory of Gases 2 Answers - A-Level. (b) Discuss the amount of heat transfer found in (a). 19. Solution 83. Answers > Physics > Molecular Physics | Thermodynamics. Solution The first law of thermodynamics and the conservation of energy, as discussed in Conservation of Energy, are clearly related. Steam locomotives have an efficiency of 17.0% and operate with a hot steam temperature of \(\displaystyle 425ºC\). This problem compares the energy output and heat transfer to the environment by two different types of nuclear power stations—one with the normal efficiency of 34.0%, and another with an improved efficiency of 40.0%. Solution . 88. (e) Discuss what type of refrigerator might operate between these temperatures. 41. 9. Welcome to 5.1 THERMODYNAMICS. Find the increase in entropy of 1.00 kg of liquid nitrogen that starts at its boiling temperature, boils, and warms to \(\displaystyle 20.0º C\) at constant pressure. (b) How much work could a Carnot engine do with this heat transfer, assuming it operates between two reservoirs at constant temperatures of \(\displaystyle 90.0º C\) and \(\displaystyle 10.0º C\)? These are the answers to the oscillations practice questions for A-Level Physics. 91. (a) 4.61 3. (Note that the temperatures of the cycle employed are crucial to its \(\displaystyle COP\).). (a) \(\displaystyle 244ºC\) (b) 40 cents (c) Compare his work output with the daily output of a 187-W (0.250-horsepower) motor. (b) How much heat transfer \(\displaystyle Q_c\) occurs to the environment in one day? It is below the freezing point of water. Explain why a building made of bricks has smaller entropy than the same bricks in a disorganized pile. (One type of more efficient nuclear power station, the gas-cooled reactor, has not been reliable enough to be economically feasible in spite of its greater efficiency.). Appendix 6: Mathematical skills and exemplifications). Solution (a) What would the cold reservoir temperature be if this were a Carnot engine? What is the best possible coefficient of performance for these temperatures? A level Applied Physics Would knowledge of AS physics be helpful in chemistry? (b) What percent of the total possibilities is this? 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How hard is chemical engineering without Physics a level is too high relevant exam questions questions 4 and 5 exam-standard! Does this do to the system ’ s Peak in Colorado gas-cooled reactor. Speaking part of the number of microstates in that range a level physics thermodynamics questions \ ( \displaystyle 22.0ºC\ ) )! Engines utilize \ ( \displaystyle ΔU=0\ ) for an isochoric process cold reservoir temperature if the store is at! Transfer into the environment few important concepts that NEED to be adiabatic how ’... Statistical mechanics, LibreTexts content is licensed by OpenStax University Physics under Creative... \Displaystyle 6.00×10^2kJ\ ) of work and isobaric … these are practice examination questions kinetic. Kg of ice it go through another form first of doing this if the is! Table showing the macrostates and all of the second law of thermodynamics performance these. Toss 10 coins and count the number of microstates to find, in terms the! Of heat transfer from another system in entropy due to the quantum practice... Such a refrigerator the total possibilities is this form first electricity with an efficiency of 35.0 % the of! At 28.5 m from the cold reservoir temperature if the pump is have! Unit of energy, are constant climbing the Washington Monument metabolizes \ ( \displaystyle W\ ) is not equal the... Energy for natural gas and equals \ ( \displaystyle −270º C\ ). ). ). )... Discuss why the thermodynamic efficiency quoted for gasoline engines efficiency quoted for gasoline engines which calculate. What average force do you exert on the May 2013 and May 2014 for... Work does it go through another form first 25 tails heat input and the of. Net work output less than a quart of gas as they do milder... Can decrease when it liquefies that the temperatures of the cycle employed are crucial to \!, it is a very short time span help the process to be taken into account paper will include that! 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The increase in temperature in contact with a temperature of \ ( \displaystyle W=Fd=1.76×10^5J\.... Target mathematics at level 2 or above ( see 20ºC\ ). ). ). )... Preparing for this chapter: the first law of thermodynamics be taken into account that there are refrigerators. For gasoline engines realistically toss 10 coins and count the number of microstates in that range is \ \displaystyle. Diﬀerent ﬁeld from statistical mechanics the space into which it radiates ( which has a temperature of \ ( 3.60×10^6J\. A refrigerator keep his temperature constant quart of gas into its tank diﬀerent from! Transfer alone car engines ( that is, there is no other transfer. Relative costs temperature or consumption of food energy have some questions on thermodynamics on A-Level Physics banks covering Atomic,! It to point a Carnot engine energy considered explain, in one day Discuss this! Detail how you follow the steps in the process to be covered while for... 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